Asphalt pavement refers to any paved road surfaced with asphalt. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is a combination of approximately 95% stone, sand, or gravel bound together by asphalt cement, a product of crude oil. Asphalt cement is heated aggregate, combined, and mixed with the aggregate at an HMA facility. The resulting Hot Mix Asphalt is loaded into trucks for transport to the paving site. The trucks dump the Hot Mix Asphalt into hoppers located at the front of paving machines. The asphalt is placed, and then compacted using a heavy roller, which is driven over the asphalt. Traffic is generally permitted on the pavement as soon as the pavement has cooled.